Polyvinylpyrrolidone is abbreviated as PVP, and is the polymer of vinylpyrrolidone. According to the different degree of polymerization, it is further classified into soluble PVP and insoluble PVPP (polyvinyl polypyrrolidone). Molecular weight of the soluble PVP is 8,000 to 10,000.The soluble PVP can be used as a precipitating agent which can be settle down through its action with polyphenols. Using this method, it is easily to have residual PVP in the alcohol. Due to the savings effect of PVP inside the human body, the World Health Organization doesn’t recommend to apply this substance. In recent years, the use of soluble PVP has been rare. Insoluble PVPP system had began to be used in the beer industry since the early 1960s. It has a relative molecule weight greater than the relative mass greater than 700,000. It is a insoluble polymer derived from the further cross-linking and polymerization of PVP and can be used as an adsorbent of polyphenols with a good efficacy.
The molecular formula of Polyvinylpyrrolidone
Polyvinylpyrrolidone PVP is one of the three major pharmaceutical new excipients and can be used as the co-solvent of tablets, granules, and injection, as the glidant of capsules, as the dispersant agent of liquid preparations and the colorant, as the stabilizer of enzyme and heat sensitive drug, as the co-precipitating agent of poorly soluble drugs, and as the detoxicant of ophthalmic drugs and lubricants.
It is industrially used as expanded polystyrene additive, as the gelling agents for suspension polymerization, stabilizer, and fiber treating agents, paper processing aids, adhesives, and thickening agents.
Polyvinylpyrrolidone PVP and its copolymers CAP is an important raw material of cosmetics, mainly used for hair retaining agent. The film it formed in the hair is elastic and shiny, and has excellent carding property as well as being free of dust. Adopting different category of resin can meet various kinds of relative humidity climatic conditions. Therefore, it is an indispensable raw material in styling hair cream, hair gel, and mousse. It can also be used for the cosmetics of skin moisturizing agents and the dispersants for grease based hair dying, also as foam stabilizers, and can improve the consistency of the shampoo.
Insoluble PVP is the stabilizer of beer and juice which can improve its transparency, color, and flavor.
Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) is a water soluble polyamide. Commercially available PVP is divided into four viscosity grades according to its press K value (Fikentscher K value): K-15, K-30, K-60, K-90, with the average molecular weight being 10,000, 40000,160000, and 360000, respectively. K value or molecular weight is an important factor which decides the various properties of PVP.
Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) is dissolved in water, chlorinated solvents, alcohol, amine, nitro-paraffin and low molecular weight fatty acids, and is mutually soluble with most inorganic salts and a variety of resin; insoluble in acetone and ether. PVP used for the matrix of dropping pill matrix is odorless, tasteless, white to pale yellow waxy solid with the relative density being 1.062, and its 5% aqueous solution pH being 3 to 7. PVP is hygroscopic and of good thermal stability, and can be dissolved in various kinds of organic solvents, and has high melting point. Adding certain natural or synthetic polymers or organic compounds can effectively adjust the PVP’s hygroscopicity and softness. PVP is not prone to have chemical reaction. Under normal storage conditions, dry PVP is quite stable. PVP has excellent physical inertia and biocompatibility and has not stimulation to skin, eyes no stimulation with no allergic reactions and being non-toxic.
Because of the hydrogen bonding or complexation effect, PVP’s viscosity is increased and this further inhibits the formation and growth of crystallized nuclei of drugs, making the drug being in the amorphous state. The dropping pill whose matrix is PVP can enhance the dissolution and bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. In general, the greater the PVP amount, the higher dissolution and solubility of drug in the medium. Susana et al have studied the dissolution of the PVP solid dispersant of the slightly soluble drug albendazole. The increased amount of PVP (k30) can increase the dissolution rate and efficiency of drug inside the solid dispersant. Teresa et al have studied the dissolution of the poorly soluble drugs, flunarizine in PVP solid dispersant and obtained similar conclusion. PVP also found that the higher the content, the more significant increase in dissolution. IR has showed that flunarizine and PVP has no chemical reaction except in some cases that a best dissolution efficacy is obtained only in certain ratio between some drugs with the PVP. Tantishaiyakul et al has found that: when the ratio of piroxicam: PVP is 1:5 and 1:6, the dissolution of the solid dispersant is the largest with a 40 times as high as that of single drug within 5min.
PVP can also be dissolved in another molten dropping pill matrix, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyoxyethylene monostearate (S-40), poloxamer and stearyl acid, glyceryl monostearate, etc for making complex matrix.
The above information is edited by the Chemicalbook of Dai Xiongfeng
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